Kajaran is located in the south of Armenia, in the Syunik region. The city is 356 km from Yerevan and 25 km from the regional centre Kapan. It is located only 50 km from the Armenia-Iran border. The town is located on the bank of the Voghji River, between the Zangezur Mountains and the Meghri Range. The highest peak in the region is the Kaputjugh, which is 3905m high and lies west of Kajaran.
The name of the city is derived from the Armenian word "Քաջ" which means "brave" and the suffix "արան" which means "place". So it means a settlement of brave people. It was renamed Kajaran in the 20th century. However, the area of the town has been settled since the 3rd-2nd millennium BC which is proved by the ruins of a pagan temple found in the area.
The region is rich in mineral resources (stone and ore, molybdenite, copper, gold, silver, etc). In 1930 huge copper deposits were discovered in the area, and the Soviet government decided to build a large copper-molybdenum plant here.
In 1951, the Zangezur state-owned mining company was formed to organize the production process, which became one of the largest companies of the Soviet Union. In 2004, production was relaunched and nowadays, it is one of the largest industrial companies of Armenia.
Kajaran is located in an alpine climate zone. The average annual temperature is +7C, with the absolute maximum of +33,5C and the absolute minimum of -18.5C.
Among the most interesting sights of the town is the Bronze Age fort of Napat dating back to the 2nd millennium BC (4 km west of the city), the fortress of Baghaberd and a medieval cemetery at the eastern edge of the town. Kajaran also has a small church built in 1912 on the foundations of a medieval church. The city has a cultural centre, a public library and an art school for children.